Parts-per million (ppm)

What is ppm?

ppm is an abbreviation of parts per million. ppm is a value that represents the part of a whole number in units of 1/1000000.

ppm is dimensionless quantity, a ratio of 2 quantities of the same unit. For example: mg/kg.

One ppm is equal to 1/1000000 of the whole:

1ppm = 1/1000000 = 0.000001 = 1×10-6

One ppm is equal to 0.0001%:

1ppm = 0.0001%

ppmw

ppmw is an abbreviation of parts per million weight, a subunit of ppm that is used for part of weights like milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg).

ppmv

ppmv is an abbreviation of parts per million volume, a subunit of ppm that is used for part of volumes like milliliters per cubic meter (ml/m3).

Parts-per notations

Other part-per notations are written here:

Name Notation Coefficient
Percent % 10-2
Per-mille 10-3
Parts per million ppm 10-6
Parts per billion ppb 10-9
Parts per trillion ppt 10-12

Chemical concentration

ppm is used to measure chemical concentration, usually in a solution of water.

Solute concentration of 1 ppm is solute concentration of 1/1000000 of the solution.

The concentration C in ppm is calculated from the solute mass msolute in milligrams and the solution mass msolution in milligrams .

C(ppm) = 1000000 × msolute / (msolution + msolute)

Usually the solute mass msolute is much smaller than the solution mass msolution.

msolutemsolution

Then the concentration C in ppm is equal to 1000000 times the solute mass msolute in milligrams (mg) divided by the solution mass msolution in milligrams (mg):

C(ppm) = 1000000 × msolute (mg) / msolution (mg)

The concentration C in ppm is also equal to the solute mass msolute in milligrams (mg) divided by the solution mass msolution in kilograms (kg):

C(ppm) = msolute (mg) / msolution (kg)

When the solution is water, the volume of mass of one kilogram is approximately one liter.

The concentration C in ppm is also equal to the solute mass msolute in milligrams (mg) divided by the water solution volume Vsolution in liters (l):

C(ppm) = msolute (mg) / Vsolution (l)

Concentration of CO2

The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is about 388ppm.

Frequency stability

The frequency stability of an electronic oscillator component can be measured in ppm.

The maximal frequency variation Δf, divided by the frequency f is equal to the frequency stability

Δf(Hz) / f(Hz) = FS(ppm) / 1000000

 
Example

Oscillator with frequency of 32MHz and accuracy of ±200ppm, has frequency accuracy of

Δf(Hz) = ±200ppm × 32MHz / 1000000 = ±6.4kHz

So the oscillator produces clock signal within the range of 32MHz±6.4kHz.

The supplied frequency variation is caused from temperature change, aging, supply voltage and load changes.

Decimal, percent, permille, ppm, ppb, ppt conversion calculator

Enter proportion part in one of the text boxes and press the Convert button:

%
ppm
ppb
ppt

Moles per liter (mol/L) to milligarms per liter (mg/L) to ppm conversion calculator

Water solution, molar concentration (molarity) to milligrams per liter to parts per million (ppm) converter.

mol/L
g/mol
mg/L
ºC
ppm

PPM conversions

How to convert ppm to decimal fraction

The part P in decimal is equal to the part P in ppm divided by 1000000:

P(decimal) = P(ppm) / 1000000

Example

Find the decimal fraction of 300ppm:

P(decimal) = 300ppm / 1000000 = 0.0003

How to convert decimal fraction to ppm

The part P in ppm is equal to the part P in decimal times 1000000:

P(ppm) = P(decimal) × 1000000

Example

Find how many ppm are in 0.0034:

P(ppm) = 0.0034 × 1000000 = 3400ppm

How to convert ppm to percent

The part P in percent (%) is equal to the part P in ppm divided by 10000:

P(%) = P(ppm) / 10000

Example

Find how many percent are in 6ppm:

P(%) = 6ppm / 10000 = 0.0006%

How to convert percent to ppm

The part P in ppm is equal to the part P in percent (%) times 10000:

P(ppm) = P(%) × 10000

Example

Find how many ppm are in 6%:

P(ppm) = 6% × 10000 = 60000ppm

How to convert ppb to ppm

The part P in ppm is equal to the part P in ppb divided by 1000:

P(ppm) = P(ppb) / 1000

Example

Find how many ppm are in 6ppb:

P(ppm) = 6ppb / 1000 = 0.006ppm

How to convert ppm to ppb

The part P in ppb is equal to the part P in ppm times 1000:

P(ppb) = P(ppm) × 1000

Example

Find how many ppb are in 6ppm:

P(ppb) = 6ppm × 1000 = 6000ppb

How to convert milligrams/liter to ppm

The concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to the concentration C in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and equal to 1000 times the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L), divided by the solution density ρ in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = C(mg/kg) = 1000 × C(mg/L) / ρ(kg/m3)

In water solution, the concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to 1000 times the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L) divided by the water solution density at temperature of 20ºC, 998.2071 in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and approximately equal to the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L):

C(ppm) = 1000 × C(mg/L) / 998.2071(kg/m3) ≈ 1(L/kg) × C(mg/L)

How to convert grams/liter to ppm

The concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to 1000 times the concentration C in grams per kilogram (g/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the concentration C in grams per liter (g/L), divided by the solution density ρ in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = 1000 × C(g/kg) = 106 × C(g/L) / ρ(kg/m3)

In water solution, the concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to 1000 times the concentration C in grams per kilogram (g/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the concentration C in grams per liter (g/L), divided by the water solution density at temperature of 20ºC 998.2071 in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and approximately equal to 1000 times the concentration C in milligrams per liter (mg/L):

C(ppm) = 1000 × C(g/kg) = 106 × C(g/L) / 998.2071(kg/m3) ≈ 1000 × C(g/L)

How to convert moles/liter to ppm

The concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to the concentration C in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the molar concentration (molarity) c in moles per liter (mol/L), times the solute molar mass in grams per mole (g/mol), divided by the solution density ρ in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = C(mg/kg) = 106 × c(mol/L) × M(g/mol) / ρ(kg/m3)

In water solution, the concentration C in parts-per million (ppm) is equal to the concentration C in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and equal to 1000000 times the molar concentration (molarity) c in moles per liter (mol/L), times the solute molar mass in grams per mole (g/mol), divided by the water solution density at temperature of 20ºC 998.2071 in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3):

C(ppm) = C(mg/kg) = 106 × c(mol/L) × M(g/mol) / 998.2071(kg/m3) ≈ 1000 × c(mol/L) × M(g/mol)

How to convert ppm to Hz

The frequency variation in hertz (Hz) is equal to the frequency stability FS in ppm times the frequency in hertz (Hz) divided by 1000000:

Δf(Hz) = ± FS(ppm) × f(Hz) / 1000000

Example

Oscillator with frequency of 32MHz and accuracy of ±200ppm, has frequency accu0racy of

Δf(Hz) = ±200ppm × 32MHz / 1000000 = ±6.4kHz

So the oscillator produces clock signal within the range of 32MHz±6.4kHz.

ppm to ratio, percent, ppb, ppt conversion table

Parts-per million (ppm) Coefficient  /  Ratio Percent (%) Parts per billion (ppb) Parts per trillion (ppt)
1 ppm 1×10-6 0.0001% 1000 ppb 1×106 ppt
2 ppm 2×10-6 0.0002% 2000 ppb 2×106 ppt
3 ppm 3×10-6 0.0003% 3000 ppb 3×106 ppt
4 ppm 4×10-6 0.0004% 4000 ppb 4×106 ppt
5 ppm 5×10-6 0.0005% 5000 ppb 5×106 ppt
6 ppm 6×10-6 0.0006% 6000 ppb 6×106 ppt
7 ppm 7×10-6 0.0007% 7000 ppb 7×106 ppt
8 ppm 8×10-6 0.0008% 8000 ppb 8×106 ppt
9 ppm 9×10-6 0.0009% 9000 ppb 9×106 ppt
10 ppm 1×10-5 0.0010% 10000 ppb 1×107 ppt
20 ppm 2×10-5 0.0020% 20000 ppb 2×107 ppt
30 ppm 3×10-5 0.0030% 30000 ppb 3×107 ppt
40 ppm 4×10-5 0.0040% 40000 ppb 4×107 ppt
50 ppm 5×10-5 0.0050% 50000 ppb 5×107 ppt
60 ppm 6×10-5 0.0060% 60000 ppb 6×107 ppt
70 ppm 7×10-5 0.0070% 70000 ppb 7×107 ppt
80 ppm 8×10-5 0.0080% 80000 ppb 8×107 ppt
90 ppm 9×10-5 0.0090% 90000 ppb 9×107 ppt
100 ppm 1×10-4 0.0100% 100000 ppb 01×108 ppt
200 ppm 2×10-4 0.0200% 200000 ppb 2×108 ppt
300 ppm 3×10-4 0.0300% 300000 ppb 3×108 ppt
400 ppm 4×10-4 0.0400% 400000 ppb 4×108 ppt
500 ppm 5×10-4 0.0500% 500000 ppb 5×108 ppt
1000 ppm 0.001 0.1000% 1×106 ppb 1×109 ppt
10000 ppm 0.010 1.0000% 1×107 ppb 1×1010 ppt
100000 ppm 0.100 10.0000% 1×108 ppb 1×1011 ppt
1000000 ppm 1.000 100.0000% 1×109 ppb 1×1012 ppt

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