ls -a

ls -a command in Linux

ls -a option flag lists all files including hidden files starting with '.'


$ ls -a [options] [file|dir]


ls: default list:

$ ls
Desktop   Downloads Pictures Templates Videos
Documents Music     Public   todo.txt

ls -a: list with hidden files/directories:

$ ls -a
.            Desktop     .gnome2         Music         .shotwell
..           Documents   .gstreamer-0.10 .nautilus     Templates
.bash_logout Downloads   .gtk-bookmarks  Pictures      .thumbnails
.bashrc      .esd_auth   .gvfs           .profile      todo.txt
.cache       .fontconfig .ICEauthority   Public        Videos
.config      .gconf      .libreoffice    .pulse        .xsession-errors
.dbus        .gconfd     .local          .pulse-cookie

ls -la: long listing format with hidden files:

$ ls -la
total 40
drwxr-xr-x 25 user user  680 2011-08-17 18:07 .
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root   60 2011-08-17 16:19 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  220 2011-08-17 16:19 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r--  1 user user 3353 2011-08-17 16:19 .bashrc
drwx------  7 user user  220 2011-08-17 17:58 .cache
drwx------  9 user user  220 2011-08-17 18:02 .config
drwx------  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 16:19 .dbus
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   80 2011-08-17 16:52 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Documents
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Downloads
-rw-------  1 user user   16 2011-08-17 16:20 .esd_auth
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user  100 2011-08-17 17:56 .fontconfig
drwx------  4 user user   80 2011-08-17 16:52 .gconf
drwx------  2 user user   60 2011-08-17 18:14 .gconfd
drwx------  5 user user  100 2011-08-17 16:52 .gnome2
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   60 2011-08-17 17:58 .gstreamer-0.10
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  142 2011-08-17 16:52 .gtk-bookmarks
dr-x------  2 user user    0 2011-08-17 16:52 .gvfs
-rw-------  1 user user  318 2011-08-17 16:52 .ICEauthority
drwxr-xr-x  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 17:56 .libreoffice
drwxr-xr-x  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 16:52 .local
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Music
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 .nautilus
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user  120 2011-08-17 18:14 Pictures
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  675 2011-08-17 16:19 .profile
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Public
drwx------  2 user user  160 2011-08-17 16:20 .pulse
-rw-------  1 user user  256 2011-08-17 16:20 .pulse-cookie
drwxr-xr-x  5 user user  100 2011-08-17 17:58 .shotwell
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Templates
drwx------  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 18:02 .thumbnails
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  131 2011-08-17 18:07 todo.txt
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Videos
-rw-------  1 user user 8030 2011-08-17 18:16 .xsession-errors


Currently, we have around 1977 calculators, conversion tables and usefull online tools and software features for students, teaching and teachers, designers and simply for everyone.

You can find at this page financial calculators, mortgage calculators, calculators for loans, calculators for auto loan and lease calculators, interest calculators, payment calculators, retirement calculators, amortization calculators, investment calculators, inflation calculators, finance calculators, income tax calculators, compound interest calculators, salary calculator, interest rate calculator, sales tax calculator, fitness & health calculators, bmi calculator, calorie calculators, body fat calculator, bmr calculator, ideal weight calculator, pace calculator, pregnancy calculator, pregnancy conception calculator, due date calculator, math calculators, scientific calculator, fraction calculator, percentage calculators, random number generator, triangle calculator, standard deviation calculator, other calculators, age calculator, date calculator, time calculator, hours calculator, gpa calculator, grade calculator, concrete calculator, subnet calculator, password generator conversion calculator and many other tools and for text editing and formating, downloading videos from Facebok (we built one of the most famous Facebook video downloader online tools). We also provide you online downloanders for YouTube, Linkedin, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok and other social media sites (please note we does not host any videos on its servers. All videos that you download are downloaded from Facebook's, YouTube's, Linkedin's, Instagram's, Twitter's, Snapchat's, TikTok's CDNs. We also specialise on keyboard shortcuts, ALT codes for Mac, Windows and Linux and other usefull hints and tools (how to write emoji online etc.)

There are many very usefull online free tools and we would be happy if you share our page to others or send us any suggestions for other tools which will come on your mind. Also in case you find any of our tools that it does not work properly or need a better translation - please let us know. Our tools will make your life easier or simply help you to do your work or duties faster and in more effective way.

These below are the most commonly used by many users all over the world.

And we are still developing more. Our goal is to become the one-stop, go-to site for people who need to make quick calculations or who need to find quick answer for basic conversions.

Additionally, we believe the internet should be a source of free information. Therefore, all of our tools and services are completely free, with no registration required. We coded and developed each calculator individually and put each one through strict, comprehensive testing. However, please inform us if you notice even the slightest error – your input is extremely valuable to us. While most calculators on are designed to be universally applicable for worldwide usage, some are for specific countries only.

Page Id: 1650

This website uses cookies to improve your experience, analyze traffic and display ads. Learn more